Immigration Judges generally have the authority to:
- make determinations of removability, deportability, and excludability
- adjudicate applications for relief from removal or deportation, including, but not limited to, asylum, withholding of removal (“restriction on removal”), protection under the Convention Against Torture, cancellation of removal, adjustment of status, registry, and certain waivers review credible fear and reasonable fear determinations made by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
- conduct claimed status review proceedings
- conduct custody hearings and bond redetermination proceedings
- make determinations in rescission of adjustment of status and departure control cases
- take any other action consistent with applicable law and regulation as may be appropriate, including such actions as ruling on motions, issuing subpoenas, and ordering pre-hearing conferences and statements
See 8 C.F.R. §§1240.1(a), 1240.31, 1240.41.
Immigration Judges also have the authority to:
- conduct disciplinary proceedings pertaining to attorneys and accredited representatives,
- administer the oath of citizenship in administrative naturalization ceremonies conducted by DHS
- conduct removal proceedings initiated by the Office of Special Investigations
Although Immigration Judges exercise broad authority over matters brought before the Immigration Courts, there are certain immigration-related matters over which Immigration Judges do not have authority, such as:
- visa petitions
- employment authorization of certain waivers
- naturalization applications
- revocation of naturalization
- parole into the United States under INA § 212(d)(5)
- applications for advance parole
- employer sanctions
- administrative fines and penalties under 8 C.F.R. parts 280 and 1280
- determinations by the Department of Homeland Security involving safe third country agreements
See 8 C.F.R. §§103.2, 1003.42(h), 28 C.F.R. § 68.26.
Immigration Judges render oral and written decisions at the end of Immigration Court proceedings. A decision of an Immigration Judge is final unless a party timely appeals the decision to the Board of Immigration Appeals or the case is certified to the Board. Parties should note that the certification of a case is separate from any appeal in the case. See Chapter 6 (Appeals of Immigration Judge Decisions).
The Board of Immigration Appeals has broad authority to review the decisions of Immigration Judges. See 8 C.F.R. § 1003.1(b). Although the Immigration Courts and the Board are both components of the Executive Office for Immigration Review, the two are separate and distinct entities. Thus, administrative supervision of Board Members is vested in the Chairman of the Board, not the Office of the Chief Immigration Judge.
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) enforces the immigration and nationality laws and represents the United States government’s interests in immigration proceedings. DHS also adjudicates visa petitions and applications for immigration benefits. See, e.g., 8 C.F.R. § 1003.1(b)(4), DHS is entirely separate from the Department of Justice and the Executive Office for Immigration Review. When appearing before an Immigration Court, DHS is deemed a party to the proceedings and is represented by its component, ICE.